“My wife and I are looking for our first home…I heard I get something called a pest clearance with the house we buy. What is that? Do they check for ants, rats, spiders, etc.?”
You’re talking about what’s commonly referred to as a “termite clearance,” but officially called a “pest control clearance.”
A pest control clearance covers “wood-destroying pests or organisms” and their damage. That’s usually termites, fungus, and dry rot. They don’t look for rodents or non-wood-destroying insects like spiders.